Ultraviolet rays break the bond connecting the central isohumulone ring to a side chain of oxygen and carbon molecules. This newly released molecule (called a free radical) has a spare electron, which is desperate to bond with any other available molecule. Floating in the beer are many potential partners, most of which are safe from a taste perspective. However, when a free radical mingles with a certain sulfur alcohol molecule (called sulfmethyl) present in small amounts in beer, the two will combine into something that smells a lot like an angry skunk.
At the moment when we talk with satellites, we use polarised light, which can only vibrate on a single plane, because it's not affected by turbulence in the air. But this is extremely slow, as only one bit of information can be carried by each particle of light.
In order to speed this up, physicists have been looking for a way to encode more information into photons - and in the '90s they began investigating twisting light, which can be sent like a corkscrew across long distances. This is known as orbital angular momentum, or OAM, and it opens up the potential for ridiculously fast and secure communication.