Keener and two colleagues developed and patented the radiant frying system in 2007. The radiant fryer uses infrared energy to produce the appealing crispy exterior unique to fried food.
Sixty-eight panelists were recruited on the basis of age, preference for fried chicken products, and a habit of eating "fast food" at least two times a month. The group consisted of students, employees and visitors of the Department of Food Science. Panelists rated randomly numbered samples of chicken patties on the basis of flavor, crispiness, oiliness, appearance and overall preference.