The Rainbow Connection

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and here's a breakdown of how it works (explanation begins at 4:14):

Colonizing Other Worlds Will Take Huge Spaceships

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Colonizing Other Worlds Will Take Huge Spaceships
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f humanity ever wants to colonize a planet beyond the solar system, it's going to need a really big spaceship. The founding population of an interstellar colony should consist of 20,000 to 40,000 people, said Cameron Smith, an anthropologist at Portland State University in Oregon. Such a large group would possess a great deal of genetic and demographic diversity, giving the settlement the best chance of survival during the long space voyage and beyond, he explained.