Ruby Holt spent the majority of her life on a farm in Tennessee, but just before her 101st birthday she finally got to go to the beach.
After discovering she had never been, two employees at her assisted living center applied for a grant through a charity organization called Wish of a Lifetime, which funded her entire trip to the Alabama coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
What did she think after taking a stroll on the sand and putting her feet in the water?
1) One of the patient's two olfactory bulbs was removed and the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) were grown in culture
2) 100 micro injections of OECs were made above and below the damaged area of the spinal cord
3) Four strips of nerve tissue were placed across an 8mm gap in the spinal cord. The scientists believe the OECs acted as a pathway to stimulate the spinal cord cells to regenerate, using the nerve grafts as a bridge to cross the severed cord
Darek Fidyka, who was paralysed from the chest down in a knife attack in 2010, can now walk using a frame.
The treatment, a world first, was carried out by surgeons in Poland in collaboration with scientists in London.
Details of the research are published in the journal Cell Transplantation.