What you're seeing is a bloom of phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean. These microscopic organisms are very important to the environment and might even influence clouds and the climate.
This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite. Data from chlorophyll in the phytoplankton was combined with red, green and blue bands from the satellite's imaging system to make this picture. The mission of the satellite is to keep track of climate change and weather.
It's also pretty good at taking amazing pictures of Earth.
Some images taken from the satellite look a lot more like weather forecasts than gorgeous water colors but the phytoplankton blooms are actually a pretty normal occurrence.